TRANSLATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL LITERATURE IN THE LIGHT OF CURRENT REQUIREMENTS FOR TEACHING TRANSLATORS
The article touches upon the lexical and grammatical difficulties of translating scientific and technical literature into Ukrainian, in particular the Frenchlanguage texts on railway. The topicality of the issue is explained by the current requirements to translation and training translators who should be able to work in a particular field and know the terminology. Translation of scientific and technical literature is a separate discipline in the course of training translators. Characteristic features of the scientific and technical texts are informative value, objectivity, logical structure, terms, neutral style, abbreviations, and acronyms. Those are general features of scientific and technical text of the sublanguages of different areas. But each sublanguage has its own characteristics which differ in their lexical and grammatical composition and patterns. The analysis of the lexical and grammatical difficulties of translating French-language railway texts suggests that railway terminology, which has more general and specific terms, should be studied by students gradually starting with more general terminology. Difficulties in working with terms arise when the Ukrainian language lacks the equivalent of the term or uses its literal translation instead of carefully studying the content of the text. Common vocabulary in the texts on railway sometimes becomes terminological, due to the semantic similarity of the word or its addition to another term. There are many international words in the texts of the railway industry, some of them have become terms due to their environment or entered into terminological expression with another term. The grammatical structure of the French-language texts on railway differs in impersonal character, passive voice constructions, and infinitive sentences. These features cause syntactic and grammatical transformations in the process of translation. The development of new materials and the improvement of the translation of texts in the specialty are explained by the development of language and sublanguages in various areas.
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