• O. D. Melnychuk
Keywords: concept, classical theory, prototype theory, exemplar theory, similarity, cognition


The present article is devoted to one of the important problems of modern linguistics – language categorization. The proposed semantic-cognitive approach to the description of categories and features of language categorization is relevant in modern science; it is used to fully characterize the presented phenomenon. Within the framework of this theory we consider the following attributive approaches to the organization of categories: classical, prototype, exemplar ones. We present and analyze the principles of organization and construction of different types of categories, taking into account the fact that scientists describe this phenomenon from different points of view and within different linguistic theories: denotativereference; functional-semantic, theory of frame semantics and semantic-cognitive theory of categories. Since language uses a common cognitive apparatus, language categories are represented by categories of the same type as other categories in the conceptual system, for example, they demonstrate prototype effects and basic level effects. One of the presented problems is the connection between the differences that exist in the real world and the differences that are fixed by the means of speech. The existence of categories is possible due to the fact that the basis of their functioning is not the features of a particular language, and a certain model of knowledge. An important factor is the internal organization of the category, which covers the core and periphery. Because cognitive linguistics is a discipline that engages scholars in a variety of fields, modern linguistics introduces new explanations for the organization of knowledge about the world in the speaker’s mind, it is based on cognitive and psychological methods. The cognitive approach to language analysis is to identify and explain the processes of categorization and conceptualization that are reproduced in language. The unit of conceptualization in cognitive linguistics is a notion (concept), which is understood as the result of cognition. The concept, according to cognitive and linguistic-cultural interpretation, concentrates not only the semantics of the language unit, but also some abstract entity. The concept is a unit of mental lexicon; it is a set of values and norms as a result of human cognitive activity.


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