LEXICOGRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF FRENCH BORROWINGS IN ENGLISH IN THE EARLY 20 CENTURY
The article focuses on a lexicographic investigation of foreign words in the English language in the early 20 century (E20) as etymological studies nowadays are becoming widespread in linguistics with subsequent practical implementation in the educational process. The aim of this research is offering a solution as to the study of language distribution within the English lexicon E20 in order to decide which languages determine each studied semantic domain. Language distribution of the research proved that French donated huge vocabulary into English in E20. Historical background was studied for better understanding of the respective standards of culture of English and French and the effect of the influence of French. The article proposes the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of French words: in the language distribution (out of 38 languages) 42% of foreign words were borrowed from French in E20 proving the idea of genetic and structural proximity of the languages concerned. Various semantic groups of borrowing were determined due to its frequency (cookery, sport, music, art and literature, military, theology, medicine etc.). It has been estimated that barbarisms in the field of conversation and every day matters (2,8%) enjoy universal acclaim including the vocabulary marked as slang or colloquial. Morphological characteristic of borrowed words was clarified: French noun-forming suffixes were examined: -ette – 15%; -age – 8,3%; -eur – 10%; -on – 11,8%; – ier/i-erre – 6,4%; -tine – 5%; -ist/-ism – 4,9%; as well as their differentiation into word classes. The material clearly demonstrated that out of 38 languages in our experimental language distribution English displays the tendency to borrow nouns more than any other parts of speech – 71% of words, 17,2% – noun phrases, 5,7% – adjectives, 2,4% – interjections, 1,2% – verbs, 1% – adverbs and 1,5% – adverb phrases. The author hopes that the presented classification of borrowed vocabulary of E20 performed on the basis of lexicographic investigation and existing theoretical knowledge about French influence on English can serve as an effective foundation for unification of scientific views in the field of English etymology and is of direct practical relevance.
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